Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Page: 68-75
Agricultural Drainage Water as a Source of Water for Fish Farming in Egypt
Magdy Soltan, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
Mohamed Hassaan, Fish Nutrition Research Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Cairo, Egypt
Fayza Abaas, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
Abdel-Rahman Khattaby, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
Received: Aug. 27, 2016;       Accepted: Nov. 12, 2016;       Published: Dec. 23, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.eeb.20160103.15      View  3235      Downloads  93
Abstract
In Egypt, the reuse of agricultural drainage increases the country’s available water resources by 20%. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of agricultural drainage water on accumulation of heavy metals and pesticide residues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in earthen ponds. Six earthen ponds (2 hectare for each) in two fish farms located at the same area (3 ponds for each farm). The first pond group irrigated by fresh irrigation water (IW) and the 2nd group (in another fish farm) supplied by agricultural drainage water (ADW). Each pond was stocked with 40000 fish (2.22±0.1 g) and fed on 25% CP diet at a daily rate of 3% of the total fish biomass. At the experiment end (7 months) results showed that, physico-chemical parameters for IW and ADW remained in the favorable range for Nile tilapia growth. ADW had higher density of phytoplankton and zooplankton in comparison to IW. Accumulation of heavy metals in liver and gills were higher than in muscles and ranked as liver>gills>muscles. Iron had the highest concentration values of metals content in liver, gills and muscles of fish reared in two water types and the sequence of metals was as follows: Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Pb. All pesticides residues under permeable limits in fish reared in the two types of water. Fish reared in agricultural drainage water showed the lowest significant (P<0.05) red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit and (Ht) total protein and the opposite trend was recorded for glucose and amino transferases, AST and ALT. ADW ponds produced the highest significant body weight, weight gain specific growth rate and fish yield compared to IW.
Keywords
Water Sources, Nile Tilapia, Accumulation, Heavy Metals, Pesticides Residues
To cite this article
Magdy Soltan, Mohamed Hassaan, Fayza Abaas, Abdel-Rahman Khattaby, Agricultural Drainage Water as a Source of Water for Fish Farming in Egypt, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 68-75. doi: 10.11648/j.eeb.20160103.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
GAFARD (2013). General Authority for Fish Resources. Fish Production Statistics, 2012. Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo, Egypt.
[2]
Barnes, J. (2014): Mixing waters: The reuse of agricultural drainage water in Egypt. Geoforum, 57:181-191.
[3]
Soltan, M. (2013): Intensification of fish production in Egypt. Technical report submitted to the general committee for the promotion of Professors (Animal production), Cairo, Egypt.
[4]
ECDG, (2002): European Commission DG ENV. E3 Project ENV. E.3/ETU/0058. Heavy metals in waste. Final report.
[5]
Khadr, A. M. (2005): Copper concentrations and phases in polluted surface sediments of Lake Edku, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 31(2): 253–260.
[6]
El-Nemeki, F. A; Nema, A. Ali; Zeinhom, M. M. and Olfat A. Radwan (2008) Impacts of different water resources on the ecological parameters and the quality of tilapia production at El-Abbassa fish farms in Egypt 8th international symposium on tilapia in aquaculture, 491-512.
[7]
Gupta, G, Z. H. Zidan, M. I. Bdel-Mageed, K. A. Mohamed and A. E. Bayoumi. 2002. Monitoring of the pesticide residues and metals in water soil systems in industrial and agricultural areas at Kalubia governorate, Egypt. The first Conf. of the Central Agric, Pesticide Lab. 3-5 Sept: 19-138.
[8]
Radwan, O. A. and I. E. Atalla. 2005. Monitoring of pesticide residues in agriculture drainage water and fish samples collected from different governorates, Egypt. Bull. Fac Agric. Cairo Univ. 56: 189-200.
[9]
Radwan, O. A. 2008. Monitoring of some pesticide residues in water and fish tissue samples collected from three locations at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. J. Biol- Chem. Environ. Sci. 3. 1:583-597.
[10]
El-Nemeki, F. A and T. E. Badawy. 2005. Effect of water quality and seasonal variations on heavy metals concentrations in Mugil cephalus tissues, at El-Abbassa fish farm Egypt. Ain Shams Science. Bulletin.43: 33-44.
[11]
El-Nemeki, F. A and T. E. Badawy. 2006. Impact of different water resources and seasonal variations on the heavy metals concentration in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. African. J. Biol Sci. 2. 2:67-74.
[12]
Barakat, K. K. 2004. Effect of some water pollutants on the biology of the Nile Bolti, Oreochromis niloticus. Pakistan. J. Biologcal Scinces, 7:305-308.
[13]
APHA 1985. Standard methods for examination of water and waste water. Amrican Puplic Health Association. Washington. D. D. USA.
[14]
AOAC 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 13th Ed. Washington DC, USA.
[15]
UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program) (2007). "Guidance for Analysis of persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)." Field Sampling Procedures, UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Guidance on the Global Monitoring Plan for Persisent Organic Pollutants, May 2007.
[16]
Rawling, M. D. Merrifield, D. L. Davies, S. J. 2009. Preliminary assessment of dietary supplementation of Sangrovit® on red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and health. Aquaculture 294, 118-122.
[17]
Reitman, S. Frankel, S. 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28, 56-63.
[18]
SAS (2004). SAS Procedure Guide version 6.12 Ed. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
[19]
Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11: 1-42.
[20]
Dhawan, A, and Kaur, S. (2002). Pig Dung as pond manure: Effect on water quality, pond productivity and growth of carps in polyculture system. Naga, the ICLARM Quarterly, 25(1): January-March 2002.
[21]
Boyd, C. E. 1990. Water Quality in ponds for aquaculture. Agriculture Experiment Station, Auburn Univ. Alabama, U.S.A: 482.
[22]
Padmavathi, P. and Prasad, M. K. D. (2007). Studies on algal bloom disasters in carp culture ponds. Braz. J. Morphol. Sci, 24(2): 32-43. Pesticide manual (2005): Version 3-1, thirteenth edition.
[23]
Abdel-Hakim, N. F.; Bakeer, M. N. and Soltan, M. A. (2000): Effect of two manuring systems on water quality and plankton communities in fish ponds. Conference of Social and Agricultural Development of Sinai, El-Arish-North Sinai, 16-19 May, Egypt, 147-158.
[24]
Abdel-Hakeem, N. F. Bakeer, M. N. and Soltan, M. A. (2002). Aquatic Environment for Fish Culture. Deposit No. 4774/2002. Cairo, Egypt.
[25]
Ahmed, Z. A.1983. Studies on phytoplankton of the Nile system in Upper Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis. Assiut Univ. Egypt.
[26]
Soltan, M. A. Bakeer, M. N. and Samra, I. M. (2006): Effect of some feeding regimes on water quality, growth and productivity of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in earthen ponds. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 84(1A):1-18.
[27]
Soltan, M. A. Mahmoud, A. S. Aida M. Dawah and Soha M. Ahmed (2014): Selective feeding of Nile tilapia and silver carp on green algae and cyanobacteria in aquaculture. Abbassa Int. J. Aqua. 7(1):120-143.
[28]
Meade, J. W. (1989): Aquaculture management. New York: Van NostrandReinhold.
[29]
Vymazan, J. 1995. Algae and element cycling in wet lands. Duke Univ. School of the environment. Duke wet land center Durham, North Calorina. CRC Press. Inc.
[30]
Kattaby, A. A. Fayza E. Abbas, Soltan, M. A. and El-Sayaad, G. A. (2010): Effect of using different water sources on the growth performance of mono sexed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in earthen ponds. Abbassa Int. J. Aqua. Special Issue (The Third Scientific Conference Al Azhar University, Cairo 17-18 October 2010. pages 129-142.
[31]
Kucuksezgin, F. Kontas, A. Altay, O. Uluturhan, E. and Darilmaz, E. 2006. Assessment of marine pollution in Izmir bay: nutrient, heavy metal and total hydrocarbon concentrations. Environ. Int. 32: 41-51.
[32]
Kraemer, L. D. Campbell, P. G. & Hare, L. (2005). Dynamics of Cd, Cu and Zn accumulation in organs and sub-cellular fractions in field transplanted juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Environmental Pollution, 138(2), 324-337.
[33]
Jobling, M. (1995): Environmental Biology of Fishes. First edition. Printed in Great Britain. Chapman and Hall, London.
[34]
Matthiessen, P. and Brafield, A. E. (1977). Uptake and loss of dissolved zinc by the stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Journal of Fish Biology, 10(4), 399-410.
[35]
WHO, World Health Organization. 1984. Guide lines for drinking water quality. Vol. 1, Recommendations. Geneva. 63.
[36]
Akan J. C. Abdulrahman, F. I. and Chellube, Z. M. (2014): Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 5(2):87-92.
[37]
Razia S. Ali, W. Ameer, F. Munshi, A. B. and Nasir, M. (2012): Accumulation of pesticide residues by shrimp, fish and brine shrimp during pond culture at Ghorabari (District Thatta), J. Chem. Soc. Pak. Vol. 34(3): 541-549.
[38]
FDA (2001): The Food and drug Administration of USA. FDA, Veterinarian.16, 5 (2001).
[39]
Epifanio, C. E. (1972): Effects of dieldrin-contaminated food on the development of Leptodius floridanus larvae. Marine biology, 13(4):292-297.
[40]
Helfrich, L. A. Weigmann, D. L. Hipkins, P. and Stinson, E. R. (1996): Pesticides and aquatic animals: A Guide to reducing impacts on aquatic system. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 420-013.
[41]
Gerken, A. J. Suglo, V. and Braun, M. (2001): Crop protection policy in Ghana for Ministry of food and agriculture, Intergrated crop protection project PPRST/GTZ, Pokuase/Accra 162.
[42]
WHO, World Health Organization (2005) Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guideline to Classification. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization. Public Health Impact of Pesticides used in Agriculture. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland 51:86.
[43]
Abdel-Tawwab, M. Hagras, A. E. Elbaghdady, H. M. and Monier, M. N. (2014). Dissolved oxygen level and stocking density effects on growth, feed utilization, physiology, and innate immunity of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 26(4):340-355.
[44]
Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. S.; Han, S. C.; Heo, J. D; Ha, C. S.; Kwon, M. S. and Chung, M. K. (2004). Haematological and plasma biochemical variables in cynomolgus monkeys, Korean J. Lab. Anim. Sci. 20: 44-48.
[45]
Morgan, D. P.; Stockdale, E. M. Roberts, R. J. and Walter, H. W. (1980). Anemia associated with exposure to lindane, Arch. Environ. Health, 35:307-310.
[46]
Davis, K. B. B. R. Griffin and W. L. Gray, 2003. Effect of dietary cortisol on resistance of channel catfish to infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and channel catfish virus disease. Aquaculture, 218: 121-131.
[47]
Metwally. M. A. A. and Wafeek, M. (2014). Effect of ammonia toxicity on carbohydrate metabolism in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 6 (3):252-261.
[48]
Mommsen, T. P. Vijayan, M. M. and Moon, T. W. (1999): Cortisol in teleosts: Dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 9:211-268.
[49]
Adamu, K. M. and Kori-Siakpere, O. 2011. Effects of sublethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) leaf dust on some biochemical parameters of Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 54(1):183-196.
[50]
Gan, L. Liu, Y. J. Tian, L. X. Yue, Y. R. Yang, H. J. Liu, F. J. Chen, Y. J. and Liang, G. Y. (2013). Effect of dissolved oxygen and dietary lysine levels on growth performance, feed conversion ratio and body composition of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Aquaculture Nutrition 19(6):860-869.
[51]
Abdel-Tawwab, M. (2012): Effects of dietary protein levels and rearing density on growth performance and stress response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). International Aquatic Research 4(3): 1–13.
[52]
Banaee, M. Mirvagefei, A. R. Rafei, G. R. and Amiri B. M. ((2008). Effect of sub-lethal diazinon concentrations on blood plasma biochemistry. Inter. J. Envir. Res. 2, 189-198.
[53]
Yi, Y. (1998). A bioenergetics growth model for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) based on limiting nutrients and fish standing crop in fertilized ponds. Aquacultural Engineering, 18:157-173.
[54]
NRC (1993). National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 114 pp.
Browse journals by subject