Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2018, Page: 16-19
The Microhabitat Ecology of Culex quinquefasciatus (SAY) and Anopheles gambiae in Some Parts of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Ebenezer Amawulu, Department of Biology, Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, Sagbama, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Nigeria
Amakiri Goodluck Consider, Department of Biology, Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, Sagbama, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 7, 2018;       Accepted: Jul. 26, 2018;       Published: Aug. 21, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.eeb.20180302.12      View  380      Downloads  16
The effective control of malaria through larva source management requires the information on the breeding sites. This study investigated the ecology of mosquito larva in Sagbama town. The breeding sites of mosquitoes were identified in five locations. Mosquito larva in each breeding sites was collected into labeled containers using standard procedures. Morphological identification of larva followed standard procedures. Two hundred and twenty mosquito larva were collected from six microhabitats; motor tyres, dumpsites, gutter, containers, water pools and block holes. Species compositions were Culex quinquefasciatus (67.0%) and An. gambiae (32.94%). The differences of mosquito species across microhabitats were significant (F =12.8231, df=1, p< 0.05). The larva productivity in each of the breeding sites varies with the mosquito species. Culex quinquefasciatus in the order of increasing abundance across microhabitats were dumpsites (92.3%), water pools (61.2%), motortyres (57.3%), gutter (57.0%) and block holes (46.3%). An. gambiae were more abundant in block holes (58.7%), followed by motor tyres (44.7%) and least in dumpsite (7.7%); An. gambiae vary significantly across the breeding sites (F =5.8715, df=16, p< 0.05). The breeding adaptability of these mosquitoes to wide range of microhabitats is an indication that thereare increase transmission foci of filariasis and plasmodiasis in the rural communities.
Microhabitat, Ecology, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles gambiae, Bayelsa State
To cite this article
Ebenezer Amawulu, Amakiri Goodluck Consider, The Microhabitat Ecology of Culex quinquefasciatus (SAY) and Anopheles gambiae in Some Parts of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2018, pp. 16-19. doi: 10.11648/j.eeb.20180302.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Beier, JC; Oster, CN, Onyango, FK; Bales, JD; Sherwood, JA. Perkins, PV. Chumo, DK.; Koech, DV. Whitmire, RE, Roberts CR; Diggs, CL; Hoffmans, SL (1994). Plasmodium falciparum incidence relative to entomologic inoculation rates at a site posed for testing malaria vaccines in Western Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:529–536.
Adeleke, MA; Mafiana; CF; Idowu, AB; Sam-Wobo, SO; Idowu, OA (2010). Population dynamics of indoor sampled mosquitoes and their implication in disease transmission in Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria, J. Vector, Dis. 47: 33-38.
Gillet, JD (1972). Common African Mosquitoes and their Medical importance, William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, London, PP 106.
World Health Organisation (WHO). (2003). Malaria Entomology and vector control, Learner’s guide, trial Edn, WHO/CPS/CPE/SMT/ 2002. 18 Rev. 1 part 1. pp. 55 – 56.
World Health Organization(WHO) (2016). “Malaria Fact Sheet”. http://www.Who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/
World Health Organisation (WHO) (1995). Vector control for malaria and other mosquito – borne diseases. WHO Technical report series 857. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Nwoke, BEB and Eboh, JC (1991): Human activities in South eastern Nigeria and their potential danger to the breeding of vectors of human diseases. Annals of Medical Sciences, 8(1): 234–240.
Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, (NDHS) (2011). Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja.
Service MW. (1991). Agricultural development and arthropod-borne diseases: A review. Rev Saude Publica, 25: 165-8.
Sharma, V. P. and DevV. (2014). Biology and control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles, Indian J. Med Res 141, pp 525-536.
Gordon R. M. and Lavoipierre M. M. (1979). Entomology for students of medicine, fourth printing, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Okiwelu SN. and Noutcha, MAE. (2012). Breeding Sites of Culex quinquefasciatus(Say) during the Rainy Season in Rural Lowland Rainforest, Rivers State, Nigeria, Public Health Research 2(4): 64-68.
Ogbalu OK. and Onwuteaka J N. (2016). Microhabitat Ecology of Mosquitoes in Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 9(1): 1-13.
Onyido AE, Agbata VO., Umeanaeto, P U, Obiukwu, MO. (2011). Ecology of Malaria Vectors in a Rainforest Suburban Community of Nigeria, An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, Vol. 5 (2), Serial No. 19: 293-305.
Alagoa, EJ (1999). Land and people of Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta, Onyoma Research Publications, Port Harcourt, River State. pp 4-7.
De Meillon B. (1931). Illustrated keys to the full-grown larva and adults of South African Anopheline mosquitoes. South Africa Invest Med Res; 28: 578.
Hopkins GHE (1952). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region I— Larva bionomics of mosquitoes and taxonomy of culicine larvae. London: British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 8: 1–14.
Ebenezer A, Ben HIB and Esther EB (2013). Spatial distribution and Indoor resting density of mosquitoes species in the low land rainforest of Bayelsa State, Int. j. Trop. Med. 8(4):87-91.
Mullen GR. and Durden LA. (Eds) (2009). Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 2nd Edition. 637pp. Elsevier Academic Press.
Burke R, Barrera R, Lewis M, Kluchinsky T, Claborn D.(2010). Septic tanks as larvalhabitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 10:1365-2915.
Godwin RA, Okogun JC, Anosike ANO. and Nwoke BEB (2005). Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria, J Vect Borne Dis 42, pp 1–8.
Browse journals by subject